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Friday, 22nd February 2019

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Weather, Climate, Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming

Viv Forbes

Viv has a degree in Applied Science Geology and is a Fellow of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy

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There are three big drivers of weather for any place on Earth – the latitude, the local environment and solar system cycles.

The biggest weather factor is latitude – are you in the torrid, temperate or frigid zone? These climatic zones are defined by the intensity of heat delivered to Earth’s surface by the sun.

In the Torrid Zone the sun is always high in the sky. It is generally hot, often moist, with low atmospheric pressure, muggy conditions and abundant rain and storms, some severe. Places close to the Equator get two summers per year (really just one long summer) and very little winter. Further from the equator there are two seasons - “The Wet” and “The Dry”. The Torrid Zone produces many equatorial rain forests but also contains some deserts. Most people dream of vacations or retirement in the warm zone.

The Temperate Zone is cooler with more distinct seasons and sometimes severe droughts and floods. The granaries of the world lie within it. But the belt of sub-tropical high pressure zones also produces most of the world’s great deserts.

The Frigid Zone has low humidity and high atmospheric pressure, with just two seasons (one cool, with a sun that never sets, followed by a long, cold, dark, sunless winter). Only a few foolish people long for expansion of the frigid zone.

The second weather-maker is the local environment - geography, topography, winds, ocean currents and human activity.

Oceans dominate Earth’s surface and its weather. How near is the ocean with its moist changeable atmosphere and ocean currents? These can be warm, cold or variable. Sea-side places have less extremes of temperature and highlands are generally cooler than lowlands. Lands on the ocean side of mountains have more precipitation and forest vegetation while those behind the hills lie in rain shadows and have more grasslands and deserts.

Winds generally create or define weather. The rotation of the Earth generates semi-permanent trade winds which have an easterly component on the surface in both hemispheres. These are modified by convectional cells of rising and falling air created by differences in solar heating of Earth’s surface by the sun. Winds, ocean currents and ocean over-turnings combine to create longer term weather-makers such as El Nino. Contour maps of air pressure (isobars) are one of the most useful tools for short-term weather forecasting, and they can have daily or seasonal predictability.

Intense human activity also affects local weather. Mega-cities and urban sprawl generate and concentrate heat, producing their own artificial heat islands. People, houses, buses, trains, cars, trucks, aeroplanes, factories, motors, generators, stoves, heaters, coolers, concrete, bitumen and landfill all generate, absorb, reflect, exhaust or radiate heat.

As many temperature recording stations are located in or near such islands of man-made heat, this has distorted calculations of “global temperature”.

The third weather-maker relates to cycles in the solar system.

The daily rotation of Earth produces night and day with cold, fogs or frosts at dawn, warmer afternoons and the daily tides.  It also influences surface wind direction, producing areas subject to the trade winds, the roaring forties or the doldrums. 

The monthly lunar cycle produces tides in the atmosphere, in the oceans and in Earth’s crust – these affect winds, weather cycles, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The phases and orbit of the moon affect the moon/sun forces of gravity to reinforce or reduce the tides, creating Spring Tides, King Tides, Neap Tides and Slack Water. Funnel-shaped bays can magnify tides to create powerful Tidal Bores.

The annual cycle of Earth around the Sun produces the seasons from summer to winter, with more extreme seasonal effects over land than over oceans.

The 22 year sunspot cycle affects the frequency of droughts and floods. A lack of sunspots correlates with periods like the Little-Ice-Age. Periodic reductions in the sun’s Earth-shielding magnetic field allow more cosmic rays to strike the Earth, creating more clouds, more shading of Earth’s surface and producing colder, cloudier weather. The longer Milankovitch solar system cycles trigger warm eras like today’s Holocene and glacial eras like the one that ended just 12,000 years ago.

Trying to calculate something called “global average temperature” from this massive variety of ever-changing data covering diverse locations, elevations, times and weather is an exercise in statistical sophistry – either meaningless or misleading.

“Climate” is just the notional 30 year average of weather, so climate is controlled by the same big three factors that drive weather.

Notice one thing about the three big drivers of weather – not one is measurably affected by the trace amount of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Never does a daily weather forecast mention CO2, and never do weather-watching farmers or sailors note daily measurements of CO2. However, there are over one hundred massive computerised climate forecasting models run by bureaucracies that use CO2 as a key driver, with variable inputs and rules, and differing results. 

No one knows which model may have stumbled on to an accurate climate forecast.

CO2 is a rare (0.04%) colourless natural atmospheric gas. It does not generate any heat – it just moves heat around. In the atmosphere, it may slightly reduce the solar radiation that reaches the surface, thus producing cooler days; and it may slightly reduce night-time radiative cooling, thus producing warmer nights. The net effect is probably a tiny net warming at night, in winter and in polar regions – all of which are probably welcomed by most people. Even this tiny effect reduces rapidly as CO2 levels rise.

This effect is not used by any practical weather forecaster. The theory that human production of carbon dioxide can control global climate is totally unproven and looks absurd. 

Past records show that long term variations in atmospheric CO2 content are more a result of temperature changes than a cause of them.

 



Comments

THE FARCE THAT IS KNOWN AS ‘ANTHROPOGENIC’ GLOBAL WARMING.



“Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is a premier atmospheric research facility that has been continuously monitoring and collecting data related to atmospheric change since the 1950's.

The undisturbed air, remote location, and minimal influences of vegetation and human activity at MLO are ideal for monitoring constituents in the atmosphere that can cause climate change.”



The Mauna Loa observatory is the pre-eminent observatory that measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

The data primarily obtained from Mauna Loa is used to correlate global warming with the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide.



Mauna Loa is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. It has produced large, voluminous flows of basalt that have reached the ocean eight times since 1868.



Guess where all the recent volcanic activity in Hawaii is now happening?



Yep, you guessed it?



Less than 10 km from MAUNA LOA, which is itself is emitting significant amounts of volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide.



Just imagine the CO2 levels there now.

"absolute fool" then.

Aneityum is navara heaven.

No. These weren’t nakamals. They were meeting houses. The nakamals I was invited to in Middlebush were open air. Not there at the moment but having navara withdrawals

These weren’t domes, just flat gal. Awwww.....ain’t she sweet

Nivan friends in Middlebush built their meeting house with their pitch too low and the roof took off like a plane. And their main builder is a shortarse so all the door frames hit me in the head. Nakamals are quiet because there are no females :))

I am hoping my time will come....sick of the ME tribal bullshit.

Look at what JoNova Science website has published ... this is what we should be now paying for electricity, and why: http://joannenova.com.au/2018/05/gamechanger-chinese-crypto-miners-can-get-8c-cheap-electricity-in-australia-using-old-coal/

Makes the "Hooray Harry's " of this world appear to be the absolute fools that they are. He is either that or JIDF

Duped you well more like it.

Sherlock : Alimentary, my dear Watson

Watson: You want me to bend over? I don’t see any clues on the floor here. Hey, why are you pulling down my pants? Why are you looking at me like that? What are you doing with that oil?

Typical tribal response...sexual innuendo. Distract the mindless sheep looking on with a worthless comment.

Global Warming from CO2, All Politics – No Science!
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".................physicists, climatologists and meteorologists in recent times have not taken courses in thermodynamics so many don’t understand the first two laws of thermodynamics.
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First Law: Energy can be changed from one form to another, but energy cannot be created or destroyed.
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Second Law:Without additional energy input, heat can only be transferred from a hotter to cooler body, never vice versa. Our cooler atmosphere cannot radiate energy that will heat up earth’s warmer surface. Although all bodies in the universe radiate and absorb radiant energy, the warmer body always emits more energy than it receives back from a cooler body; a cooler body can never warm a warmer body.
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A Scientific Truth
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Any mass between you and a radiant energy source will provide cooling. Stand near a fireplace that is burning and feel the warmth of the radiant energy; then have two people drape a blanket between you and the fireplace – you will feel cooler! Another example, stand outside on a sun shiny day. When a cloud goes over and shades you from the direct rays of the sun, you feel cooler.
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Nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, carbon dioxide and any dust that is in the atmosphere all provide cooling. Why is this? If there were no atmosphere, all of the radiant energy from the sun would hit the earth. However, with an atmosphere, a portion of the incoming sun’s rays are absorbed or reflected away from earth by striking the gaseous molecules and dust particles, so less radiant energy hits the earth and the earth is cooler because it has atmosphere, see Figure 2...................."
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https://johnosullivan.wordpress.com/2012/04/19/global-warming-from-co2-all-politics-no-science/

How often can the support bladder be used?

POPE AFFIRMS JEWISH NOAHIDE LAWS
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“…………..It is paramount to note that on March 20 1990 President George Bush Sr signed into law a Congressional Resolution on the so-called Noahide Laws entitled House Joint Resolution 14 Public Law 102-4 Here & Here & Here.
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This Congressional Act potentially gives the Jews the legal right to imprison and condemn to death Christians as “idol worshippers” according to the 1st Article of the Noahide Laws which considers the worship of Jesus Christ as “idolatry” for worshipping a “false god” HERE.
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The Jews call this article of the 7 Noahide Laws, Avodah Zarah, enunciating it as a commandment: “Do not worship false gods as idols” Here.
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The bottom line is that this ultimately means the international imposition of the Noahide Laws by Jews. And these Noahide Laws, which potentially can condemn Christians to death, will be governed by the Zionists who are given ownership over these laws by both the Vatican and the US Government. ................................"
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Read on -
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http://www.realjewnews.com/?p=193
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“97% OF ALL SCIENTISTS ‘BELIEVE’ IN CLIMATE CHANGE”.

This crap has, I’m sorry to say, originated from some obscure Queensland academic.
(I won’t say a scientist- he doesn’t deserve the title)

“The most egregious claim is the ubiquitous refrain of the 97% OF ALL SCIENTISTS ‘BELIEVE’ IN CLIMATE CHANGE.”

https://youtu.be/RZlICdawHRA (re: 16:01)

I wonder if the vision impaired Macron (re Lucy) and global warming activist has impressed on his similarly socialist friend Turd, that the frogs had 76%of their electricity supplied by "nuclear reactors". France is smaller than NSW and has 58 nuclear power stations. Also, the Cordemais Power Station is the largest thermal(coal-fired) power station in France.[1] It is also one of the country's largest electricity producers and one of the largest thermal power plants in Europe having four generating groups, two coal-fired groups with a capacity of 600 MW each and two oil-fired groups with a capacity of 700 MW each, thus totalling an installed electric generation capacity of 2,600 MW. The power station uses between 1.3 and 2 million tonnes of coal per year imported from South Africa, Poland, United States and Australia using the port facilities located at Montoir-de-Bretagne from where the coal is shipped by barges to the power station.[1]France’s excess electricity is sold off to the rest of Europe. Note- France also imports that cheap nasty coal from Australia. Is any of this getting through to you imbeciles Turd baby, Friedinburg and MorrisIn ??

Oh the Great Scientist

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkqTK09i-Xg

"Branden River High School in Bradenton, Florida, could make bras officially mandatory for female students following a controversy surrounding one of their students who was forced to put Band-Aids over her nipples after showing up for class without a bra on under her shirt.
“In an attempt to address the situation, the school said it would change its dress code next year to make bras mandatory for all female students,” reported the Washington Times, who added that the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) “stepped in this week to defend the choice of students” who don’t want to wear a bra, saying “the school’s threat to impose a mandatory bra policy for girls amount to sex discrimination.”
In a statement, the ACLU declared, “A school’s dress code cannot make generalizations about what types of clothing or appearance are appropriate for a boy or a girl to wear to school. Unfortunately, we often see gender stereotypes and discrimination play a prolific role in the enforcement of school dress codes across the country.”
Last month, 17-year-old Lizzy Martinez recounted her experience with the school.
“She told me that I needed to put a shirt on under my long-sleeve shirt to try to tighten my breasts — to constrict them,” claimed Martinez. “And then she asked me to move around.”
Martinez was then sent to the school nurse, who gave her four Band-Aids to put over her nipples, which reportedly caused Martinez to “break down in tears” and leave school early.
According to the Bradenton Herald, Martinez is organizing a “bracott” against the school."

http://www.wiredridge.com/school-threatens-to-make-bras-mandatory-for-female-students-following-nipple-controversy