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Tuesday, 23rd October 2018

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Weather, Climate, Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming

Viv Forbes

Viv has a degree in Applied Science Geology and is a Fellow of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy

BLOG



There are three big drivers of weather for any place on Earth – the latitude, the local environment and solar system cycles.

The biggest weather factor is latitude – are you in the torrid, temperate or frigid zone? These climatic zones are defined by the intensity of heat delivered to Earth’s surface by the sun.

In the Torrid Zone the sun is always high in the sky. It is generally hot, often moist, with low atmospheric pressure, muggy conditions and abundant rain and storms, some severe. Places close to the Equator get two summers per year (really just one long summer) and very little winter. Further from the equator there are two seasons - “The Wet” and “The Dry”. The Torrid Zone produces many equatorial rain forests but also contains some deserts. Most people dream of vacations or retirement in the warm zone.

The Temperate Zone is cooler with more distinct seasons and sometimes severe droughts and floods. The granaries of the world lie within it. But the belt of sub-tropical high pressure zones also produces most of the world’s great deserts.

The Frigid Zone has low humidity and high atmospheric pressure, with just two seasons (one cool, with a sun that never sets, followed by a long, cold, dark, sunless winter). Only a few foolish people long for expansion of the frigid zone.

The second weather-maker is the local environment - geography, topography, winds, ocean currents and human activity.

Oceans dominate Earth’s surface and its weather. How near is the ocean with its moist changeable atmosphere and ocean currents? These can be warm, cold or variable. Sea-side places have less extremes of temperature and highlands are generally cooler than lowlands. Lands on the ocean side of mountains have more precipitation and forest vegetation while those behind the hills lie in rain shadows and have more grasslands and deserts.

Winds generally create or define weather. The rotation of the Earth generates semi-permanent trade winds which have an easterly component on the surface in both hemispheres. These are modified by convectional cells of rising and falling air created by differences in solar heating of Earth’s surface by the sun. Winds, ocean currents and ocean over-turnings combine to create longer term weather-makers such as El Nino. Contour maps of air pressure (isobars) are one of the most useful tools for short-term weather forecasting, and they can have daily or seasonal predictability.

Intense human activity also affects local weather. Mega-cities and urban sprawl generate and concentrate heat, producing their own artificial heat islands. People, houses, buses, trains, cars, trucks, aeroplanes, factories, motors, generators, stoves, heaters, coolers, concrete, bitumen and landfill all generate, absorb, reflect, exhaust or radiate heat.

As many temperature recording stations are located in or near such islands of man-made heat, this has distorted calculations of “global temperature”.

The third weather-maker relates to cycles in the solar system.

The daily rotation of Earth produces night and day with cold, fogs or frosts at dawn, warmer afternoons and the daily tides.  It also influences surface wind direction, producing areas subject to the trade winds, the roaring forties or the doldrums. 

The monthly lunar cycle produces tides in the atmosphere, in the oceans and in Earth’s crust – these affect winds, weather cycles, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The phases and orbit of the moon affect the moon/sun forces of gravity to reinforce or reduce the tides, creating Spring Tides, King Tides, Neap Tides and Slack Water. Funnel-shaped bays can magnify tides to create powerful Tidal Bores.

The annual cycle of Earth around the Sun produces the seasons from summer to winter, with more extreme seasonal effects over land than over oceans.

The 22 year sunspot cycle affects the frequency of droughts and floods. A lack of sunspots correlates with periods like the Little-Ice-Age. Periodic reductions in the sun’s Earth-shielding magnetic field allow more cosmic rays to strike the Earth, creating more clouds, more shading of Earth’s surface and producing colder, cloudier weather. The longer Milankovitch solar system cycles trigger warm eras like today’s Holocene and glacial eras like the one that ended just 12,000 years ago.

Trying to calculate something called “global average temperature” from this massive variety of ever-changing data covering diverse locations, elevations, times and weather is an exercise in statistical sophistry – either meaningless or misleading.

“Climate” is just the notional 30 year average of weather, so climate is controlled by the same big three factors that drive weather.

Notice one thing about the three big drivers of weather – not one is measurably affected by the trace amount of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Never does a daily weather forecast mention CO2, and never do weather-watching farmers or sailors note daily measurements of CO2. However, there are over one hundred massive computerised climate forecasting models run by bureaucracies that use CO2 as a key driver, with variable inputs and rules, and differing results. 

No one knows which model may have stumbled on to an accurate climate forecast.

CO2 is a rare (0.04%) colourless natural atmospheric gas. It does not generate any heat – it just moves heat around. In the atmosphere, it may slightly reduce the solar radiation that reaches the surface, thus producing cooler days; and it may slightly reduce night-time radiative cooling, thus producing warmer nights. The net effect is probably a tiny net warming at night, in winter and in polar regions – all of which are probably welcomed by most people. Even this tiny effect reduces rapidly as CO2 levels rise.

This effect is not used by any practical weather forecaster. The theory that human production of carbon dioxide can control global climate is totally unproven and looks absurd. 

Past records show that long term variations in atmospheric CO2 content are more a result of temperature changes than a cause of them.

 



Comments

THE FARCE THAT IS KNOWN AS ‘ANTHROPOGENIC’ GLOBAL WARMING.



“Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is a premier atmospheric research facility that has been continuously monitoring and collecting data related to atmospheric change since the 1950's.

The undisturbed air, remote location, and minimal influences of vegetation and human activity at MLO are ideal for monitoring constituents in the atmosphere that can cause climate change.”



The Mauna Loa observatory is the pre-eminent observatory that measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

The data primarily obtained from Mauna Loa is used to correlate global warming with the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide.



Mauna Loa is among Earth's most active volcanoes, having erupted 33 times since its first well-documented historical eruption in 1843. It has produced large, voluminous flows of basalt that have reached the ocean eight times since 1868.



Guess where all the recent volcanic activity in Hawaii is now happening?



Yep, you guessed it?



Less than 10 km from MAUNA LOA, which is itself is emitting significant amounts of volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide.



Just imagine the CO2 levels there now.

The site nutjob has arrived. Wish I could say the same for you... felch.

Wow Harriet is in fine form. To much of the cooking sherry.

The only reason you know how to spell that cumquat is that you drink so much of it .....

"absolute fool" then.

Aneityum is navara heaven.

No. These weren’t nakamals. They were meeting houses. The nakamals I was invited to in Middlebush were open air. Not there at the moment but having navara withdrawals

These weren’t domes, just flat gal. Awwww.....ain’t she sweet

Nivan friends in Middlebush built their meeting house with their pitch too low and the roof took off like a plane. And their main builder is a shortarse so all the door frames hit me in the head. Nakamals are quiet because there are no females :))

I’m not from any tribe baby... I’m a one off. What tribe you from ...... Mensa ?

I am hoping my time will come....sick of the ME tribal bullshit.

No worries Gilligan

It’s like a gestapo orgy here on this thread.

Thanks Cutting. High praise coming from you. I’ll wear that like a badge of honour. Your time will come.

Look at what JoNova Science website has published ... this is what we should be now paying for electricity, and why: http://joannenova.com.au/2018/05/gamechanger-chinese-crypto-miners-can-get-8c-cheap-electricity-in-australia-using-old-coal/

Makes the "Hooray Harry's " of this world appear to be the absolute fools that they are. He is either that or JIDF

Duped you well more like it.

Benjamin taught me well.

Sherlock : Alimentary, my dear Watson

Watson: You want me to bend over? I don’t see any clues on the floor here. Hey, why are you pulling down my pants? Why are you looking at me like that? What are you doing with that oil?